Good, attractive, and responsive websites you see online are designed and developed with different languages or programming languages which each have their own functions. On some websites, you can buy or sell and pay instantly with your smart card without any stress, On some (i.e. YouTube) you can watch online videos, listen to online music, and lots. All the websites are designed and developed with some programming languages which a good webmaster should be able to do. Here are some languages and their functions that a beginner should know and understand:

1. Html


HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is the language for creating web pages and web applications. It defines the content of web pages.

HTML describes the structure of a web page semantically and originally included cues for the appearance of the document.

Mostly, Html can’t work alone perfectly but with help of other languages such as Cascading Style Sheets (CSS),  scripting languages such as JavaScript, Structured Query Language (SQL), and many other

Applications of HTML

  • Website design: HTML is used in website design to create text content (such as headings, paragraphs, quotes, list), images, videos, interactive forms, documents, and other items.

  • Website development: It is used in website development to create links, pages, connecting pages with help of programming languages such as JavaScript, PHP, jQuery, SQL, and others

2. CSS

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is the language for styling web pages. It is a simple mechanism for adding style (e.g., fonts, colors, spacing) to Web documents.

CSS is a language that describes the style of an HTML document. It describes how HTML elements should be displayed.

CSS describes the presentation of a document written in HTML or XML (including XML dialects like SVG or XHTML) to specify the layout of web pages. CSS describes how elements should be rendered on screen, on paper, in speech, or on other media.

Applications of CSS

  • Website design: It is used for adding style (e.g., fonts, colors, spacing) to Web content.

3. JavaScript

JavaScript is the language for programming web pages. It is the programming language of HTML and the Web. JavaScript is to program the behavior of web pages. It can change HTML elements

JavaScript (JS) is a lightweight, interpreted, programming language with first-class functions. It is most well-known as the scripting language for Web pages.

Do not confuse JavaScript with the Java programming language. Both “Java” and “JavaScript” are trademarks or registered trademarks of Oracle in the U.S. and other countries. However, the two programming languages have very different syntax, semantics, and uses.

The HTML DOM (the Document Object Model) is the official W3C standard for accessing HTML elements.

Applications of CSS

  • For creating web and mobile apps

  • For adding interactive behavior to web pages.

  • For building web servers and developing server applications. …

  • For Game development.

4. SQL

Structured Query Language(SQL) is a standard language for accessing and manipulating databases.

SQL is a special-purpose programming language designed for managing data held in a relational database management system (RDBMS), or for stream processing in a relational data stream management system (RDSMS).

Applications of SQL

  • It is used to update databases

  • It is used to execute queries

  • It is used to manage permissions

5. PHP

Personal Home Page(PHP) is a web server programming language.

It is a server scripting language and a powerful tool for making dynamic and interactive Web pages. It is designed primarily for web development but is also used as a general-purpose programming language.

PHP code may be embedded into HTML code, or it can be used in combination with various web template systems, web content management systems, and web frameworks.

Applications of PHP

  • It is used to develop web Pages and Web-Based Applications

  • For web Content Management Systems

  • Data Representation

  • eCommerce Applications

  • image Processing and Graphic Design

  • GUI-Based Applications

  • Create Flash

6. jQuery

jQuery is a JavaScript Library. It is a cross-platform JavaScript library designed to simplify the client-side scripting of HTML.

jQuery’s syntax is designed to make it easier to navigate a document, select DOM elements, create animations, handle events, and develop Ajax applications. jQuery also provides capabilities for developers to create plug-ins on top of the JavaScript library. This enables developers to create abstractions for low-level interaction and animation, advanced effects, and high-level, theme-able widgets. The modular approach to the jQuery library allows the creation of powerful dynamic web pages and Web applications. 

Applications of jQuery

  • It helps to simplify and standardize interactions between JavaScript code and HTML elements

  • It makes event handling

  • It is used for DOM manipulation

  • It is used to add animated effects on our web page

7. Bootstrap

Bootstrap is a CSS framework for designing better web pages. It is a free front-end framework for faster and easier web development. It includes HTML and CSS-based design templates for typography, forms, buttons, tables, navigation, modals, image carousels, and many others, as well as optional JavaScript plugins. It also gives you the ability to easily create responsive designs.

The languages above are used to build and design good and responsive websites. The next post will explain the uses of different programming languages and the best website to learn each of them.

Applications of Bootstrap

  • To develop a responsive website

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